• Elections

    Elections

    Coverage of elections and the political process has always been one of the hallmarks of Capitol Broadcasting Company.  CBC journalists have made political news a priority on the company’s radio and television stations plus the internet.

     

    • 1964 Election coverage on WRAL-TV

      Bill Armstrong, Sam Beard and Scottie Stephenson on set election night at WRAL-TV.

    • Election coverage at WRAL-TV

      Anchors Adele Arakawa and Charlie Gaddy host election coverage from the WRAL newsroom.

    • WRAL anchors on election night

      Adele Arakawa and Charlie Gaddy discuss election results with analyst in 1988

    • Bowles vs Dole Debate

      Democrat Erskine Bowles and Republican Elizabeth Dole debated the pressing issues of 2002 in hope of garnering votes in the upcoming election to represent North Carolina in the United States Senate. The debate was held at Jones Hall on the campus of Meredith College in Raleigh on October 14, 2002. The moderators were WRAL News Anchor David Crabtree and WTVD News Anchor Larry Stogner.

    • Election coverage for 1972 NC primary

      WRAL-TV reporter Russell Capps ready to offer results for Wake County during election coverage.

  • Femme Fare

     

    “Femme Fare—WRAL-TV’s Magazine of the Air for the Modern Woman” was a pioneering weekday program on WRAL-TV from 1963 to 1977.

    The program was hosted by WRAL Woman’s Director Bette Elliott and featured a wide range of news and features with women viewers in mind. Elliott was a veteran newspaper reporter and columnist who quickly found a following as host of the program.

    Femme Fare was produced every weekday in the WRAL-TV studios. The show included regular features on cooking, sewing and flower arranging, but also delved into serious topics such as women’s health, business issues, the arts and culture.

    Elliott used the traditional kitchen set for some segments, but branched out to host full fashion shows and other segments on location outside the studio. She would travel to New York City regularly to get an early look at the fashions of the day, producing reports that would give Triangle viewers insight on the coming trends.

    The Femme Fare program earned several major honors; it claimed the TV-Radio Mirror Award for outstanding programming in 1969 and then again in 1971.

     

    • Bette Elliott

      Femme Fare host enjoying a moment at WRAL-TV 10th anniversary open house in 1966.

    • Bette Elliott greets guests

      Femme Fare host greets guests at WRAL-TV 10th anniversary celebration.

    • Bette Elliott

      Femme Fare host in 1960s staff photo

    • Femme Fare models

      Models posing for Femme Fare television show. Host Bette Elliott always featured the latest fashions on her signature program.

    • Fort Bragg reporters on Femme Fare

      Every week reporters from Fort Bragg would appear on Femme Fare to bring viewers military news. L-R: Private Paul Michels and Sergeant Bill Altman in a December 1966 photo.

  • News Specials

    News Specials

    When major events take place, CBC is there to provide special coverage that goes beyond the typical newscast.  From inaugurations to statewide anniversaries and celebrations, CBC brought the story home to listeners and viewers.

     

    • Gaddy and Hefner before WRAL 50th anniversary reunion newscast

      Charlie Gaddy chats with WRAL GM Jim Hefner before reunion newscast in 2006

    • DeBardelaben and Gaddy

      Legendary anchors Bob DeBardelaben and Charlie Gaddy share a moment following the WRAL 50th anniversary newscast in 2006

    • WRAL anchors old and new at 50th reuncion newscast

      Bob DeBardelaben, Bobbie Battista, Charlie Gaddy and Tom Suiter are joined by successors at reunion in 2006

    • 1992 NC Friendship Force Trip to Moscow Final report of 11 Elle Lysova

      The USSR ceased to exist on December 26, 1991. A few weeks later, WRAL News anchor Donna Gregory and WRAL photographer Jay Jennings accompanied the NC Friendship Force on a trip to Russia, now formerly the USSR, in mid-January 1992.

      Meet Elle Lyosa, a physical therapist who works at Moscow State University. She is paid the equivalent of three dollars of month. She is a single mother with a four year old son. Their home is an apartment that is 9‘ X 15’. Her outlook is positive as she seeks to better her life.

      This is the last of 11 reports that aired on WRAL News.

    • 1992 NC Friendship Force Trip to Moscow Report #8 Russian Economy

      The USSR ceased to exist on December 26, 1991. A few weeks later, WRAL News anchor Donna Gregory and WRAL photographer Jay Jennings accompanied the NC Friendship Force on a trip to Russia, now formerly the USSR, in mid-January 1992.

      People in Moscow had to stand in long lines to shop for food they often could not afford. Those who had a summer home in the country were able to plant food on the farm that enabled them to store enough food to get them through the bleak winter months.

      This is the eighth of 11 reports that aired on WRAL News.

  • Newscasts

     

    News programming is at the very heart of Capitol Broadcasting’s mission statement. CBC Founder A.J. Fletcher promised that his company would provide news and information “without bias or favor,” and CBC news operations have followed that guideline as a core value.

    Over the last six decades WRAL-TV News has distinguished itself as one of the premier television news operations in the country. Central to the success of WRAL-TV News is its award-winning staff of journalists, who report and produce some of the best television newscasts in the nation.

     

    • Hurricane Irma reported by WRAL reporter Ken Smith

      Hurricane Irma caused massive devastation to the US Virgin Islands during early September, 2017.

      In response, the US ARMY 602 medical company – based at Fort Bragg, North Carolina – deployed on recovery and medical mission to ST. Thomas. WRAL reporter Ken Smith and photojournalist Richard Adkins flew with the military team to document the effort.

      While there, another hurricane named Maria approached ST Thomas. The 602nd medical company had to temporarily suspend their activity and transfer to a Navy ship for safety until Hurricane Maria passed by.

      WRAL news anchor: Kathryn Brown
      Aired: September 17, 2017

    • WRAL reporter Ken Smith reports on Hurricane Irma damage in St Thomas

      Hurricane Irma packed category 5 winds when it slammed into the Virgin Islands around September 10, 2017. The devastation was enormous. WRAL reporter Ken Smith is from St. Thomas in the US Virgin Islands and was anxious to see his parents and extended family and friends.

      Ken and photographer Richard Adkins were able to fly down to the islands with the ARMY 602 medical company out of Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The US ARMY was deployed to assist with medical needs and recovery missions.

      Watch this touching video of Ken reconnecting with his mother. Plus, Ken and Richard see the devastation that Hurricane Irma left in her wake.

      News anchor: Cullen Browder.
      Saturday, September 16, 2017.

    • Bloopers with Bobbie Battista and Charlie Gaddy circa 1979

      Thankfully most bloopers, mistakes, and giggle fits do not happen on the air. However, after a newscast – while taping “updates” to play during the evening – a case of the giggles can happen. The stress and tension of being perfect during a live broadcast is off, and being able to relax a bit often plays out in bloopers.

      Chuckle along with legendary WRAL news anchor team Charlie Gaddy and Bobbie Battista from the late ’70s. In 1981, Bobbie Battista joined CNN in Atlanta where she was a news anchor for many years. Charlie Gaddy retired from WRAL in 1994.

    • SKY5 pilot Mike Allen LIVE interview with NC Army National Guard pilot

      SKY5 pilot Mike Allen conducts a live interview with Major Les Everett with the N.C. Army National Guard. While Major Everett pilots a Huey helicopter and Mike pilots SKY5, they talk about the recent successful annual summer camp and what the Army National Guard provides to the state on a daily basis.

      Circa 1983.

    • 400th Anniversary Voyage from England to NC Action News 5 Newscast

      April 27, 1984 commemorated the 400th anniversary of the voyage from Plymouth, England to the shores of what is now is now North Carolina. Earlier in the day, WRAL aired the ceremonies LIVE via satellite from Plymouth, England. That broadcast can be viewed on this website.

      The anniversary celebration was the lead story on the 6 PM newscast. WRAL News anchor Charlie Gaddy reported LIVE from England. He is interviewed by WRAL News anchors Adele Arakawa and John Hudson.

  • Ongoing News Coverage

     

    Good news organizations cover more than breaking news; they cover issues and themes that affect citizens over long periods of time.  Ongoing coverage has always been a strength of CBC newsrooms and that commitment has resulted in local, regional and national awards.

     

    • American Idol Winner Scotty McCreery

      Scotty McCreery won season 10 of American Idol in 2011. McCreery is a country music singer who grew up in Garner, North Carolina, a few miles east of Raleigh. WRAL and sister station WRAZ provided extensive coverage about McCreery’s rise to fame on American Idol and ultimately winning the contest. WRAL reporter Monica Laliberte gives us an overview of Scott’s journey from audition to advancing to the finals.

    • CRIBBAGE

      Cribbage players travel to Raleigh, North Carolina to compete in the annual National Cribbage Tournament – the world’s largest cribbage event.

      Nick Pond, former WRAL Sports director/anchor and avid cribbage player, formed the American Cribbage Congress and national tournament in 1973. The competition was held in the studios of WRAL-TV.

      We have two vintage stories about the tournament. The first story aired in 2013. Scott Mason, the Tar Heel Traveler, provides a bit of history about this brainy card game.

      The second video aired in 1979. WRAL News reporter Del Walters talks with WRAL Sports anchor Nick Pond explains how cribbage, a popular game at family and friend gatherings, came out of the living room to take center stage with its own tournament.

    • NOAA Hurricane Hunter Aircraft

      WRAL News photographer Richard Adkins flew into the eye of a storm named Irene, August 2011. You’ll see what happens inside this special aircraft referred to as a “Hurricane Hunter” as it criss-crosses through a hurricane.

      Adkins wrote and shot this story. It is voiced by WRAL News anchor David Crabtree.

      Hold on to your seat as you watch!

    • Tar Heel Tartans

      Tar Heel Tartans!

      WRAL news anchor Bill Leslie and news photographer Rick Armstrong document North Carolina native Bill Caudill’s search for his Scottish ancestral homeland. Along the way they meet an artist, visit castles, watch Bill Caudill participate in a bagpipe competition and learn about the significance of the tartan.

      Enjoy this six part series produced in May, 1986 and aired prior to the annual Grandfather Mountain Highland Games and Gathering of Scottish Clans in July, 1986. You will discover that the people in Scotland have a high regard for the gathering that takes place every year near Linville, North Carolina.

      Bill Caudill is Director of the Scottish Heritage Center and Instructor of the College Pipe Band at St. Andrews Presbyterian College in Laurinburg, North Carolina.

    • “Give Thanks for Carolina” photo essay by Bill Leslie

      “Give Thanks for Carolina” was primarily shot and edited by WRAL news photographer Rick Armstrong and set to music composed and performed by WRAL news anchor Bill Leslie.

  • Public Affairs and Editorials

    Public Affairs and Editorials

    CBC’s dedication to the public interest is on display through its timely public affairs programming. Regularly-scheduled programs on television and radio examine serious issues that affect the lives of citizens in the community.

    Over the years CBC has also offered television and radio commentary on important issues of the day. By taking a stand, CBC sought to heighten awareness and spark lively debate over issues of public concern.

    • 30 Minutes

      “30 Minutes” was a weekly public affairs program that was produced on WRAL-TV in 1996-97. The program aired on Saturday evenings and was hosted by WRAL news anchor David Crabtree.

      Similar programs in this time period were “Q&A with David Crabtree” and “Headline Saturday.”

    • Carolina Saturday

      “Carolina Saturday” was a WRAL-TV issues program hosted by Public Affairs Director Waltye Rasulala.  The weekly program aired in the 1980s.

    • Editorials

      CBC founder A.J. Fletcher thought that it was important for his company to weigh in publicly on the issues of the day. As a result, CBC has a long history of editorial commentary that aired on WRAL-TV and the company’s radio outlets.

      There’s no doubt that the most famous Capitol Broadcasting Company editorialist was Jesse Helms, whose controversial commentaries were broadcast from 1960-1972. Other commentators who delivered CBC’s editorial opinions over the years include William P. Cheshire, Carl Goerch, Joel Lawhon, J.D. Lewis, Charles Dunn and Giles Lambertson.

      Several guest editorials are featured in this part of the history archive, but notably missing are any of the legendary commentaries by Jesse Helms. WRAL-TV is often asked: What happened to all those “Viewpoint” editorials? The short answer is that the video segments simply weren’t preserved. While that answer is true, it bears more explanation, which in turn calls for a bit of history about television production in the early days of the medium.

      In the early days of broadcasting local television stations carried a mixture of live programming and occasional segments shot on film. Videotape technology was introduced in the 1950s and 1960s, but the new production method did little to promote the archival preservation of television’s early content (to see WRAL-TV’s first videotape machine, type “videotape” into the search box).

      The first VTR (videotape recorder) machines utilized costly reels of two-inch-wide magnetic tape. Standard practice was to record a segment on a reel of videotape and then re-use it after the programming had aired. It was just too expensive for most stations to save tapes for posterity, so they were used over and over until they wore out.

      The new technology made it relatively easy for WRAL personnel to record the Viewpoint editorials, but it also made it just as easy to erase them. Jesse Helms would record his daily editorial on videotape and it would air in that night’s newscast. The next day the same videotape would be rewound and used again—wiping away the previous day’s commentary forever.

      This “re-use” practice erased countless hours of classic programming. Not only were the Viewpoint editorials lost, so were shows like “Tempus Fugit,” “Cap’n Five,” and “Femme Fare.” The practice gradually began to change when smaller, cheaper videotape formats were introduced in the mid-to-late 1970s, but by then many of WRAL-TV’s classic programs had been lost to the ages.

    • Harambee

      “Harambee” was a weekly program hosted by Public Affairs Director J.D. Lewis.  The show focused on issues of the day–particularly those affecting minority communities.

    • On the Record

  • Tar Heel Traveler

     

    The Tar Heel Traveler is the name of a feature reporting segment that has appeared in WRAL-TV newscast since the 1970s.

    Like other local television feature franchises, the Tar Heel Traveler was inspired by Charles Kuralt’s “On the Road” reports that premiered on CBS in 1967. Kuralt traveled the nation’s byways in search of interesting characters, places and things, and it wasn’t long before similar reports showed up on local television stations.

    Channel 5 launched the Tar Heel Traveler in the 1970s and seven reporters have produced stories for the franchise through the years. John Pronk was the first, followed by Skip Cilley, Mike Stevens, Bill Draper, Bill Leslie and Les Boney.

    WRAL’s Scott Mason assumed the Traveler mantle in 2007 and he has produced more than 1,300 Tar Heel Traveler features in the years since.

     

    • CRIBBAGE

      Cribbage players travel to Raleigh, North Carolina to compete in the annual National Cribbage Tournament – the world’s largest cribbage event.

      Nick Pond, former WRAL Sports director/anchor and avid cribbage player, formed the American Cribbage Congress and national tournament in 1973. The competition was held in the studios of WRAL-TV.

      We have two vintage stories about the tournament. The first story aired in 2013. Scott Mason, the Tar Heel Traveler, provides a bit of history about this brainy card game.

      The second video aired in 1979. WRAL News reporter Del Walters talks with WRAL Sports anchor Nick Pond explains how cribbage, a popular game at family and friend gatherings, came out of the living room to take center stage with its own tournament.

    • WRAL 60th Anniversary “The Early Years” by The Tar Heel Traveler

      WRAL celebrated 60 years of broadcasting on December 15, 2016. In recognition of that anniversary, Scott Mason – better known as The Tar Heel Traveler – took viewers on a time travel, via black and white film footage, to witness several news events covered by WRAL during the early years.

      A few of the highlights include President John F. Kennedy’s visit to the campus of UNC to WRAL News Director Bill Armstrong’s interview with NASA astronaut Neil Armstrong while he was training at the Morehead Planetarium in Chapel Hill. Meet Marlene Carole, WRAL’s first female weatherperson who used a chalkboard to write the high and low temperatures – with an eye-wink. Later we see WRAL transition to color and then lead the nation in HD technology.

      Feature edited by WRAL Tar Heel Traveler photographer Bob Meikle.

    • WRAL 60th Groundbreaking Retrospective by The Tar Heel Traveler

      In recognition of WRAL’s 60th Anniversary, Scott Mason – better known as The Tar Heel Traveler – took viewers back to October 17, 1956 for the groundbreaking ceremonies of the studios on Western Boulevard in Raleigh. WRAL would sign on two months later on December 15, 1956 using a temporary studio in the garage of the transmitter building near Garner.

      Scott Mason interviewed Wesley Williams, former President of Greater Raleigh Merchants Association, for his recollection of that rainy day in October. Also interviewed is CEO Jim Goodmon, grandson of founder A.J. Fletcher and nephew of Fred Fletcher.

      WRAL-FM carried the dedication ceremonies LIVE with Fred Fletcher, VP of Capitol Broadcasting introducing the guest speakers and providing commentary. George Geoghegan, VP of Wachovia Bank and Trust served as Master of Ceremonies. Other speakers included Charles Campbell, President of the Raleigh Chamber of Commerce and Wesley Williams, at the time Secretary of the Raleigh Merchants Association.

      The highlight of the event was Dorothy Collins, star of the NBC television program “Your Hit Parade,” joining CBC Founder and President AJ Fletcher to turn the soil with a gold color shovel. The day was rainy and gray, but everyone beamed with excitement. Dorothy Collins said, “I hope this station goes on forever and ever.”

      Feature edited by WRAL Tar Heel Traveler photographer Bob Meikle.

    • Dec. 15 Marks 60 years for WRAL-TV

      WRAL-TV’s Tar Heel Traveler Scott Mason features WRAL-TV on his latest installment, in honor of an important anniversary for the Big 5.  Dec. 15, 2016, marks 60 years since WRAL-TV first signed on the air. Check out more from about
    • Tar Heel Traveler Skip Cilley intros the new THT John Pronk

      WRAL Tar Heel Traveler Skip Cilley introduces the new Tar Heel Traveler John Pronk. John criss-crossed North Carolina finding interesting folks and their stories from July 1978 – March 1979.

      After Cilley left WRAL, he continued to work in television in Texas, Utah, and Massachusetts before taking a position in St. Louis, Missouri with the Evening Magazine Program. He won several EMMY awards throughout his career.

      After leaving broadcasting, he started Cilley Communications. He made St Louis his home for the remainder of his life. Cilley passed away June 2005.

  • The Southern Sportsman

     

     

    • The Southern Sportsman with Franc White

      The Southern Sportsman was Franc White. Franc shot his own film and shared his adventures on his television show produced at the studios of WRAL-TV.

      His dog was named Frickus. Frank flew an airplane painted in a zebra pattern. And he would end every program by saying, “Do yourself a favor…take a kid fishing.”

      This particular episode was produced in 1992, but apparently aired in January 1993. The video is poor in quality since it was recorded “off-air” by a viewer who lived on the fringes of the television signal. But, it has survived all these years.

      Franc passed away in 2012 at the age of 86.

    • Franc White THE SOUTHERN SPORTSMAN Commentary 44

      Franc White, better known as The Southern Sportsman, was an avid outdoorsman. Through his television program he shared his love for hunting, fishing, and cooking. Through his “Franc White Commentary” he shared his concerns regarding ecological issues as of 1993. Many say Franc White was way ahead of his time. (Franc White passed away June 6, 2012)

    • Franc White THE SOUTHERN SPORTSMAN Commentary 43

      Franc White, better known as The Southern Sportsman, was an avid outdoorsman. Through his television program he shared his love for hunting, fishing, and cooking. Through his “Franc White Commentary” he shared his concerns regarding ecological issues as of 1993. Many say Franc White was way ahead of his time. (Franc White passed away June 6, 2012)

    • Franc White THE SOUTHERN SPORTSMAN Commentary 42

      Franc White, better known as The Southern Sportsman, was an avid outdoorsman. Through his television program he shared his love for hunting, fishing, and cooking. Through his “Franc White Commentary” he shared his concerns regarding ecological issues as of 1993. Many say Franc White was way ahead of his time. (Franc White passed away June 6, 2012)

    • Franc White THE SOUTHERN SPORTSMAN Commentary 41

      Franc White, better known as The Southern Sportsman, was an avid outdoorsman. Through his television program he shared his love for hunting, fishing, and cooking. Through his “Franc White Commentary” he shared his concerns regarding ecological issues as of 1993. Many say Franc White was way ahead of his time. (Franc White passed away June 6, 2012)

  • WRAL Documentaries

    WRAL Documentaries

    WRAL-TV is one of the few stations in America that still produces news documentaries on a regular basis.  The station’s fulltime documentary staff turns out long-form programs on a variety of important issues, continuing a longtime commitment to in-depth journalism.

     

    • Searching for a Fix documentary

      “Searching for a Fix”

      Heroin is no longer a back-alley drug. It’s mainstream, in your neighborhood, and in homes just like yours. The path from prescription opioids like Oxycodone and Percocet to cheaper and more readily available heroin is a dangerous one.

      “Searching for a Fix” goes beyond the overwhelming statistics to tell intimate, personal stories of how this problem affects real people and devastates families just like yours in every corner of North Carolina. “In all of my years of documentary production, they were the most gut-wrenching and deeply personal interviews I’ve ever done. They were emotional, moving and eye-opening,” said WRAL Documentary Producer Clay Johnson.

      The program aired August 1, 2017

    • WRAL Focal Point State of Minds

      Hosted by WRAL News anchor and reporter Cullen Browder, Focal Point: “State of Minds” profiles mentally ill patients, their families, providers and other people affected by mental health care reform in North Carolina. It looks at the challenges faced by patients and their families in a system that for many has become more complicated, confusing and harder to access. It investigates the controversial spending by some LME’s and the challenges faced by private companies as they try to provide mental health services in a more competitive environment that has driven some providers out of business.

      Producer and writer – Clay Johnson
      Photographer and editor – Jay Jennings
      Aired September 26, 2007

    • Black and Blue documentary and forum

      The ambush-style killings of five Dallas police officers on July 7, 2016 ignited a conversation at WRAL-TV about how the station could respond, as tensions increased between police and the African-American community nationwide. After conversations with local leaders, WRAL began work on a documentary focused on shootings of black men in North Carolina, and the relationship between police departments and African American communities in Raleigh, Durham, and Fayetteville, NC.

      WRAL Documentary: Black & BlueThe WRAL Documentary, “Black and Blue,” was the first part of a two-hour community conversation on TV, web and social media. The documentary was simulcast on Capitol Broadcasting’s television stations and OTT channels. The exclusive online forum that followed, “Beyond Black and Blue,” was a critical conversation with law enforcement, faith leaders, and members of the black community. “Beyond Black and Blue” was live-streamed immediately following the premiere of the documentary and supported by additional station-produced online content.

      The National Association of Broadcasters Education Foundation (NABEF) honored Capitol Broadcasting Company with the coveted Service to Community Award at its annual Celebration of Service to America gala in Washington, DC on June 20, 2017.

      Documentary hosted by WRAL News anchor Gerald Owens.
      Forum discussion moderated by Tru Pettigrew.
      Aired December, 2016.

    • America’s Favorite Journey: The Blue Ridge Parkway

      America’s Favorite Journey: The Blue Ridge Parkway

      The Blue Ridge Parkway is the most popular destination in our national park system, hosting about 17 million visitors a year.

      Nearly half the 469-mile route runs through North Carolina, including its highest elevations. Some of the parkway’s iconic features are in our state, including its highest peak and the Linn Cove Viaduct at Grandfather Mountain.

      Visitors to the parkway generate more than $2 billion dollars a year for mountain communities. Its biological diversity, rich history and its parks and trails make the parkway a valuable educational and recreational resource.

      Host: WRAL News anchor Bill Leslie
      Producer/writer: Clay Johnson
      Photographer/editor: Jay Jennings

      America’s Favorite Journey’ aired June 29, 2010 on WRAL-TV.

    • Stories of Honor documentary

      World War II: the defining moment of the 20th century. More than 16 million soldiers, sailors, Marines and airmen served in the war, and more than 400,000 lost their lives. They have become known as the Greatest Generation for their service and their sacrifice. In 2004, a national memorial was dedicated on the mall in Washington D.C. in their honor.

      The Triangle Flight of Honor is a nonprofit, volunteer organization that is flying WWII veterans to Washington, D.C., to see the memorial. While the organization serves veterans of all wars, special priority is being given to WWII veterans, because they are dying at a rate of 1,200 a day nationwide. Flights, ground transportation and personal assistance are offered free of charge to veterans who might not otherwise have the opportunity to see the memorial in their lifetime.

      WRAL News viewers raised $50,481 dollars to help fund the first flight on Oct. 7, 2010.

      “Stories of Honor” is a half-hour documentary profiling three veterans who made the flight. They are:
      Derwood Copeland, a B-17 pilot who was shot down over France and spent nearly two years in a German POW camp. Hugh Shearin, a soldier who fought in the Battle of the Bulge and whose unit suffered many casualties. D.C. Lawson, a Marine who was wounded and nearly died in the battle of Okinawa.

      WRAL News Anchor Kelcey Carlson
      Producer/Writer Clay Johnson
      Photographer/Editor Jay Jennings